Fleischmann was one of the important photographers of the 20th century and arguably the most famous and groundbreaking Jewish women photographer of all time. Born in Vienna into a wealthy family she began her photographic career as an apprentice in Dora Kallmus' fashionable Atelier d'Ora and then as a photographer for Hermann Schieberth. In 1919, she joined the Photographische Gesellschaft in Wien (Vienna Photographic Society). Starting her solo career in inter-war Vienna, her work focused on portraits of the intellectuals and artists of the day. During this period she became famous for both her portraits of significant intellectuals such as Adolf Loos, Karl Kraus, Stefan Zweig and Paula Wessely. Despite photographing some of the leading lights of her day, it was her nude portraits of the expressionist dancer, Claire Bauroff that in 1925 really got her noticed. The police confiscated these elegant and self-assured portraits when they were displayed at a Berlin theatre– an act that brought her international fame. Following emigration to the US, where she re-established her business in New York in 1940 she continued to photograph notable people, including Albert Einstein and Eleanor Roosevelt.